CPR Basics: ABCs
Early CPR is an important link in the chain of survival for a victim of sudden cardiac (heart) or respiratory (lungs) arrest. CPR involves a combination of mouth-to-mouth rescue breathing (or other artificial ventilation techniques) and chest compressions. It keeps some oxygenated blood flowing to the brain and other vital organs until appropriate medical treatment can restore normal heart action.
Cardiac arrest causes the victim to lose consciousness within seconds. If there is early access to the EMS (emergency medical service) system (Phone First! Phone Fast!), early CPR, early defibrillation, and early advanced care, the person has a chance to survive.
CPR techniques include 3 basic skills, the ABCs of CPR…
AIRWAY: Open airway by positioning head properly.
Tilt Head back.
Move lower jaw (chin) forward.
BREATHING: Rescue breathing / mouth-to-mouth.
Provides oxygen to victim.
CIRCULATION: Chest Compressions.
ASSESSMENT: Determine condition and responsiveness
Tap or gently shake shoulder. Shout “Are you OK”
ACTIVATE EMS SYSTEM:
Send someone for help
(For infants & young children, give 1 minute CPR first)
POSITION VICTIM: Place on back – support head & neck.
Open Airway - Lift chin & tilt head back.
LISTEN for sounds of breathing
FEEL for breath on your cheek
IF NOT BREATHING: RESCUE BREATHING
Give 2 slow breaths (2 seconds per breath)
Pinch nostrils closed.
Tight seal around mouth.
Watch for chest to rise.
Allow lungs to deflate between breaths.
DETERMINE PULSE: Place 2 fingers on Adam’s Apple (voice box).
Slide fingers into groove between Adam’s Apple & muscle.
Feel for the carotid pulse.
IF THERE IS A PULSE: Continue rescue breathing
12 breaths per minute (1 every 5 seconds)
IF NO PULSE: Begin first cycle of CPR (compressions & ventilation).
Position hand 2 fingers above xiphoid process (breast-bone)
Compress with weight downward.
Depress 1½ to 2 inches @ 80 – 100 per minutes.
EACH CYCLE: 15 Compressions & 2 Ventilations
AFTER 4 CYCLES: Check for pulse.
NO PULSE: Resume CPR.
IF THERE IS A PULSE: If Not Breathing – Continue Rescue Breathing
(1 breath every 5 seconds)
If Breathing – Treat for Shock.
CONTINUE CPR: Until help arrives.
Pulse & Breathing Resumes.
You become physically unable to continue.
DEMONSTRATE CPR FOR 3 MINUTES (~ 12 Cycles)
Ø Activate EMS – send for help, call 9-1-1
Ø Open Airway
Ø Assess Breathing – Look/Listen/Feel
Ø Rescue Breathing (2 breaths)
Ø Assess Pulse (carotid pulse)
· If Pulse – Continue rescue breathing
· If No Pulse – Begin Chest Compressions
Ø Position Hands on chest
Ø 15 compression & 2 breaths
Ø After 4 cycles – reassess pulse & breathing
Troop 10 requires that scouts complete this type of training
within the last year for the following Merit Badges:
Swimming, Lifesaving, First Aid, Climbing, Whitewater
Sailing, Canoeing, Rowing, Motorboating, Waterskiing
If you have any questions contact: